Image Processing


Processing images is a common need in social apps. Whether it’s generating thumbnails, resizing photos, or adding effects, Iron.io can help you offload and scale out the effort.

Processing images is a key part of most social, retail, and mobile applications. Almost every application that uses photos needs to perform some manipulation on them to get them into a useful format.

Let's say you have a lot of images coming into your app in certain sizes and formats. How do you convert them to thumbnails, resize them, apply color filters, or perform other transformations automatically without a lot of effort? It's easy to do these things programmatically using the ImageMagick libraries. These types of jobs are best done in the background—no reason to eat up front-end cycles and make users wait. The issue, then, is setting up the environment and scalable infrastructure to run the processing on—that's where IronWorker comes in.

Managing servers to handle intermittent requests is not much fun. And if you convert batches of images at a time, it could take hours running on self-managed infrastructure. With IronWorker and the ImageMagick code libraries, that effort can be scaled-out on demand, without you having to manage a thing.

Image processing steps

Requirements


The examples we'll create here use the following gems. Your specific use case may vary, but these are generally a good starting point.

The ImageMagick binary libraries are already installed in the IronWorker system environment. You'll probably need to include client libraries to interface with the binary libraries, however. You can find more information on including gems on the Merging Gems page.

Writing the Worker


The first step for any worker is to write (and test!) the code on your local machine. IronWorker's environment is simply a Linux sandbox, so any code that runs on your system, assuming you properly package it, should run exactly the same on the IronWorker cloud.

Passing Information

It's generally best to pass IDs or URLs to images in the payload of the worker, as opposed to the images themselves—workers have a limited data payload size, and there's less opportunity for corruption of data. The worker will then use this unique identifier to retrieve the files to be processed and bring them into your worker's environment.

In this, example, an image URL is passed in to the worker as a data param. The file is written to the temporary, private storage each worker is given. You can see the System Environment page for more information about the amount of memory and storage available to each worker.

Retrieving the Image

Retrieving the image is a simple matter of downloading it over HTTP:


	image_processor.rb


	def download_image
	  filename = 'ironman.jpg'
	  filepath = filename
	  File.open(filepath, 'wb') do |fo|
	    fo.write open(@params['image_url']).read
	  end
	  filename
	end

Storing the Image

After processing the image, you're going to want to store it somewhere else —IronWorker's storage is only temporary, and it's completely wiped after the worker finishes running. This means that you don't have to worry about cleaning up your environment after your task is done, but it also means that you need to store the files somewhere before the worker finishes running. In this example, we're going to upload them to Amazon S3 using the aws gem. Note that @aws_access, @aws_secret, and @aws_s3_bucket will all need to be included in the task's payload.


	image_processor.rb


	def upload_file(filename)
	  filepath = filename
	  puts "\nUploading the file to s3..."
	  s3 = Aws::S3Interface.new(@params['aws_access'], @params['aws_secret'])
	  s3.create_bucket(@params['aws_s3_bucket_name'])
	  response = s3.put(@params['aws_s3_bucket_name'], filename, File.open(filepath))
	  if (response == true)
	    puts "Uploading succesful."
	    link = s3.get_link(@params['aws_s3_bucket_name'], filename)
	    puts "\nYou can view the file here on s3:\n" + link
	  else
	    puts "Error placing the file in s3."
	  end
	  puts "-"*60
	end

Manipulating the Image

Let's create a sample set of functions that process the image in various ways. (ImageMagick is an incredibly comprehensive library, so this is just a small sample of what's possible.)

We'll use the following variables in these sample functions:

Variable Meaning
filename The path to the file you're manipulating. The file needs to be in your worker's environment.
width The width, in pixels, of the post-manipulation image.
height The height, in pixels, of the post-manipulation image.
format The image format to output the post-manipulation image in.

Resizing Images


	image_processor.rb


	def resize_image(filename, width=nil, height=nil, format='jpg')
	  image = MiniMagick::Image.open(filename)
	  original_width, original_height = image[:width], image[:height]
	  width ||= original_width
	  height ||= original_height
	  output_filename = "#{filename}_thumbnail_#{width}_#{height}.#{format}"
	  image.resize "#{width}x#{height}"
	  image.format format
	  image.write output_filename
	  output_filename
	end

Generating a Thumbnail


	image_processor.rb


	def generate_thumb(filename, width=nil, height=nil, format='jpg')
	  output_filename = "#{filename}_thumbnail_#{width}_#{height}.#{format}"
	  image = MiniMagick::Image.open(filename)
	  image.combine_options do |c|
	    c.thumbnail "#{width}x#{height}"
	    c.background 'white'
	    c.extent "#{width}x#{height}"
	    c.gravity "center"
	  end
	  image.format format
	  image.write output_filename
	  output_filename
	end

Making a Sketch of an Image


	image_processor.rb


	def sketch_image(filename, format='jpg')
	  output_filename = "#{filename}_sketch.#{format}"
	  image = MiniMagick::Image.open(filename)
	  image.combine_options do |c|
	    c.edge "1"
	    c.negate
	    c.normalize
	    c.colorspace "Gray"
	    c.blur "0x.5"
	  end
	  image.format format
	  image.write output_filename
	  output_filename
	end

Normalizing Image Colors


	image_processor.rb


	def normalize_image(filename, format='jpg')
	  output_filename = "#{filename}_normalized.#{format}"
	  image = MiniMagick::Image.open(filename)
	  image.normalize
	  image.format format
	  image.write output_filename
	  output_filename
	end

Putting It All Together

We've built all the tools, let's tie them together in a single worker now.


	image_processor.rb


	puts "Downloading image"

	filename = download_image()

	puts "Generating square thumbnail"
	processed_filename = generate_thumb(filename, 50, 50)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Generating small picture"
	processed_filename = resize_image(filename, nil, 100)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Generating normal picture"
	processed_filename = resize_image(filename, nil, 200)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Generating picture with tuned levels"
	processed_filename = level_image(filename, 10, 250, 1.0)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Tune picture"
	processed_filename = normalize_image(filename)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Generating sketch from picture"
	processed_filename = sketch_image(filename)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Generating charcoal_sketch from picture"
	processed_filename = charcoal_sketch_image(filename)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

	puts "Cutting image to 6 puzzles 3x3"
	file_list = tile_image(filename, 3, 3)

	puts "List of images ready to process,merging in one image"
	processed_filename = merge_images(3, 3, file_list)
	upload_file(processed_filename)

Uploading the Worker


Uploading the worker is pretty simple. We're going to use the IronWorker command line tool, to make life easier.

Save the following as image_processor.worker:


	image_processor.worker


	gem 'aws'
	gem 'subexec'
	gem 'mini_magick'
	exec 'image_processor.rb' # Whatever you named the worker script

Now to upload the worker, just navigate to the directory with the .worker file and the worker script, and run:


	Command Line


	$ iron_worker upload image_processor

Processing Images With the Worker


To process images with the worker, you just need to queue a task with the necessary parameters (your AWS credentials and the URL for the image).

Here's an example from the command line:


	Command Line


	$ iron_worker queue ImageProcessor -p \\
	  '{"aws_access": "AWS ACCESS KEY", \\
	  "aws_secret": "AWS SECRET KEY", \\
	  "aws_s3_bucket_name": "AWS BUCKET NAME", \\
	  "image_url": "http://dev.iron.io/images/iron_pony.png"}'

You can also queue tasks from within your application:


	image_processor.rb


	client.tasks.create(
	'ImageProcessor', 
	:aws_access => "AWS ACCESS KEY",
	:aws_secret => "AWS SECRET KEY",
	:aws_s3_bucket_name => "AWS BUCKET NAME",
	:image_url => "http://dev.iron.io/images/iron_pony.png",
	)

On Github


You can find all the code for this example worker on Github. Feel free to copy, edit, and run it on IronWorker! :)

Next Steps


Any article on ImageMagick will necessarily omit a lot of the power that the library provides—there are just too many options and commands. If you're interested in doing more with ImageMagick, check out the official documentation on the ImageMagick website for a much more in-depth look at the possibilities.

For those using ImageMagick from Ruby, we recommend the MiniMagick gem —it's a wrapper for the command line utility that uses less memory than the RMagick gem.

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